Dr Anna Marhold

Assistant Professor at Leiden University


Anna Marhold is Assistant Professor at the Institute of Public Law and the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies at Leiden University. Her specialization is international economic law, with a particular focus on international trade law at the intersection of energy and environmental regulation.

Anna Marhold obtained her PhD in Law at the European University Institute (EUI) in Florence (2016). In 2015, she was a Marie Curie Early Stage Research Fellow at the Graduate Institute in Geneva, Switzerland, in the framework of DISSETTLE (Dispute Settlement in Trade: Training in Law and Economics). In 2013-2014, Anna was a recipient of the EU-US Fulbright-Schuman Grant and a visiting scholar at NYU School of Law, USA. She is a graduate in Law (LLB, LLM), specializing in international trade and investment law, and in Russian (BA, MA) from the University of Amsterdam (UvA). Prior to joining Leiden in 2019, Anna was Assistant Professor at the Tilburg Law and Economics Centre (TILEC). She speaks Dutch, English, Czech and Russian.

Anna has published widely in the field of international economic, trade and energy law and EU external trade relations. Her forthcoming monograph titled Energy in International Trade: Concepts, Regulation and Changing Markets (Cambridge University Press) examines energy regulation in international trade law against the backdrop of energy markets that have radically changed over the past decades.

Anna is particularly interested in the ongoing crisis in international trade law; security interests and other non-strictly trade-related objectives in international trade law; EU Energy Policy and its interaction with WTO obligations; energy and environmental regulation in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) and “megaregional agreements”; the future of the Energy Charter Treaty; the OPEC cartel; law and economics approaches to energy regulation; the sustainable energy transition; access to supplies and natural resources; public goods; regulation of network industries; squaring energy security with sustainable development and consumer protection; regulation of transit of energy; the Energy Community Treaty and European external energy relations, particularly with the European Neighborhood.